Thursday, August 27, 2020

Participant Observation of City Cultures Essay Example

Member Observation of City Cultures Essay Ethnography has become an extremely well known way to deal with social exploration, nearby different sorts of subjective work. It is the investigation of a lifestyle and was presented by anthropologists who contemplated negligible or disengaged societies, for example, the investigation of Trobriand Islands by Bronislaw Malinowski. Anthropologists trusted it to be essential to get as close as conceivable to the social orders they were exploring; thus, ethnography looks to some extent like the normal manners by which individuals understand the world in regular day to day existence. A few analysts view this as it essential quality; others consider it to be a key shortcoming. Member perception is a methods for social affair data; it permits the scientist to encounter the way of life under assessment. It is an examination strategy that has been adjusted to meet the prerequisites of sociologists and is utilized much of the time to increase definite subjective outcomes. In its generally trademark, structure it includes the ethnographer taking an interest, clearly or secretively, in people groups day by day lives for an all-encompassing timeframe and gathering any information that worries subject of the examination. In plain perception, specialists pronounce their actual personality and reason though a secret member spectator is covered up or camouflaged. A few scientists contend that clear perception is the most ideal route since it keeps away from interest in indecent or illicit conduct. Moreover, the agent can uninhibitedly pose inquiries without stimulating doubt. Be that as it may, being open in an examination may influence the conduct of the members as they may turn out to be progressively reluctant. Along these lines, clandestine perception is less inclined to disturb the circumstance being seen since the scientist has all the earmarks of being another individual from the gathering, for instance, a specific analyst, William Chambliss, needed to keep up mystery when leading an investigation of a sorted out wrongdoing; if his actual character was uncovered the wrongdoing may have been forestalled. Notwithstanding, this inquiries the ethnicity of the investigation since educated assent isn't given. In either case, perception can function admirably in circumstances where there is no pre-chosen test populace and where the conduct being referred to is covered up or freak. We will compose a custom paper test on Participant Observation of City Cultures explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Participant Observation of City Cultures explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Participant Observation of City Cultures explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Ethnography expects to reveal insight into the implications and aims behind social conduct. In this examination I wish to contemplate the Piccadilly train station which is situated in the Manchester downtown area. I have picked this urban space since it is a spot which relying upon what day and time I pick, can be a bustling situation which could contain dynamic and dynamic members. I have chosen to do my investigation on a Friday evening for 60 minutes, as this would be an active time in the train station; the two understudies and utilized grown-ups might be going back home. Also, it is a protected situation where I can stay hid since I wish to complete an undercover perception. I will examine the fundamental lobby of the train station as a site for social request. For instance, how much are youth subcultures a type of protection from the financial conditions of youthful average workers individuals? Since it is an open space for social personalities to meet, consolidate or even coll ide, I wish to see whether this member perception uncovers societies of peripheral or degenerate gatherings. Consequence of perception Train stations are an ordinary angle in numerous people groups lives and since I did my investigation on a Friday evening at around seven oclock, it was an active time. The train station is a type of open help and is open and accessible to any individual who is wishing to travel; it isn't strictly or instructively bound in any capacity. Piccadilly train station is a huge station; it contains different high road stores, markets, food places and bars. In any case, I was watching the real train zone, so as far as collaboration, members spoke with those they knew. Aside from that, members associated with staff individuals when buying tickets or making enquiries. Dominatingly, I distinguished two principle classes in which my members fell into; there were an enormous number of understudies and furthermore many working grown-ups. Any kids present appeared to be joined by grown-ups. Numerous understudies were on the own yet there were additionally little gatherings of them. While sitting tight in lines or for the trains, I saw that a ton of understudies utilized their telephones; on the off chance that they were not occupied with calls, they were most likely simply perusing or text informing. It appeared as they rushed to get exhausted while the vast majority of the grown-ups were content with the pausing. I likewise saw that more females, especially the working grown-ups were conveying books and magazines, probably for their excursions; notwithstanding, I didn't perceive any guys holding any understanding material. There were social jobs obvious in the train station. I saw a progression of activities that a large portion of the members appeared to be following. I found that when members entered the station, the majority of them went to the enormous screens to see the distributed train times. This zone was additionally a gathering point for a great deal of the gatherings of understudies. Next, members would buy their tickets; the greater part of them proceeded to join long lines, few would head toward the buying machines however this was very uncommon. There were two lines, one for the individuals who were going on that day, and one for future voyages. Both were extremely long, the previous line being altogether longer than the last mentioned. At last, members either got their trains or hung tight for their appearances. A few members invested their energy holding up by going into the general stores or getting food, one gathering of understudies went to the bar, yet most of members held up in the holding up territory. The general standards of conduct in the station were regular viewpoints, for example, lining and the general obligingness procedures in discussion among members and staff individuals. Since it was occupied in the station around then, numerous individuals were surging which made members push by one another, in this way visit statements of regret were made in spite of the fact that there was an occurrence when a male member coincidentally pushed by an old female member, almost thumping her over and didn't stop to apologize. This was seen by different members also and remarks were being made on how that was discourteous. This was the primary type of aberrance I saw in this investigation. Another event where the standard of conduct was damaged was when two youthful female members cunningly drove into the line. This was seen by the female member they pushed before, however she stayed calm despite the fact that it appeared to trouble her. A last occurrence happened when a huge gathering of members both male and female, probably understudies, turned out to be somewhat noisy in the principle hall of the station; they pulled in a great deal of consideration from different members. They started to upset the open group as they were getting rowdy, inevitably security monitors advised them to quieten down or leave; they left soon after. End When assuming my job as a spectator, I was very positive about what I was doing. I was not troubling anybody and I didn't communicate with anybody whenever during the examination. Since the earth I was in was very occupied and a large portion of the members were surging around the territory, I was not seen by anybody; I had the option to mix in with nature I was in. While thinking about my outcomes, certain inquiries with respect to whether this record of conduct is viewed as legitimate, or whether another specialist would watch the movement similarly. This prompts numerous methodological issues with this perception. This procedure of examination is one that is subject to the job and position onlooker receives while watching. The individuals who utilize a member methodology could exaggerate their job and influence the gatherings conduct. There is likewise the danger of going local where they become increasingly a full individual from the gathering and less an onlooker. In this manner, legitimate understanding is a critical prerequisite to empower great observational humanism. A specific specialist, Stanley (1990) has expressed: the undertaking which drives the composition of ethnography is not the same as that which drives the doing of public activity. Ethnographic depiction is really not, and can't be, exacting description.1 Accordingly, observational examinations may not be totally liberated from biasing impacts and the legitimacy of this investigation can be addressed. Gilbert and Mulkay (1984) contend that: nobody translation of social activity can be better than another whatever technique is utilized to record or watch it since every single social activity have various implications, each made by and reliant on the intelligent setting in which it is constructed.2 Thus, this considers my investigation and its outcomes were one of a kind in their own right. Then again, a few scientists, particularly the individuals who bolster the utilization of positivist techniques may see member perception as informal since the discoveries can't be checked on the grounds that the examination can't be repeated; some may see it as an abstract exploration strategy instead of a goal one. Also, moral issues emerge since no educated assent was given, as this examination was a secretive perception. With respect to freak conduct and underestimation, there was one central gathering that defied the guidelines of the standards of conduct. This may have been on the grounds that the members were in a gathering thus felt they had the ability to appear as something else; solidarity between the members in the gathering added to their certainty and may have give

Saturday, August 22, 2020

How to Write an Analysis Paper

How to Write an Analysis PaperHow to write an analysis paper is something that most students learn during their first year in college. It is usually the first thing they learn to do when a professor is talking about writing. If you can't seem to learn how to write an analysis paper, then you can always learn by watching someone else.The first thing you want to do before you try to write your analysis paper is to find a professor that will let you present it to them on their class. Make sure that they are a professor that you like or if you don't like them, find someone that you do. Many times, just giving up on one professor can change your whole opinion of a course and can make a huge difference when it comes to whether or not you can take it in the first place.Once you have decided who you will give it to, then you can start learning how to write an analysis paper. This means that you will need to read the requirements on their syllabus and figure out what needs to be included in y our piece. Just because you aren't able to write an essay about some topic, it doesn't mean that you can't write an analysis paper about the same subject.The best way to learn is to read this as a different part of the class, so it shouldn't be difficult. After you read through the requirements, you should be able to begin writing the outline of your analysis. Most professors will allow you to fill in some blanks or fill in some gaps with your research and write your own conclusion.When you do this, you should put in some reference points to keep the outline up to date, while you should also follow the guidelines in the syllabus and get your final draft written. It is a good idea to get three copies of your final draft to put together your assigned reading material. If you have to go back and revise your assignment, then you can always go back and read through the first drafts of your assignments to see what you did right and wrong.If you take this approach, you should be able to le arn how to write an analysis paper fairly quickly. The first time I tried to do this, I started with a hard copy of my syllabus and wrote out my thesis statement and any research that I needed to use for my conclusion. I would then put this aside and wait for the main professor to give me my assignment.The second time I learned how to write an analysis paper, I went over my paper with my professor and found out how to add research references. This meant that I would be able to work on my paper and hopefully it would be good enough for them to give me my assignment. I followed the guidelines that I had found and gave my paper to the professor to help him decide if I was a good candidate for the assignment.The third time I learned how to write an analysis paper, I got a tutor to help me and try my hand at it. I followed the same outline that I had made but this time I went over my outline and used some of my references to help me with my conclusion. I found that having someone that ac tually took the time to read the assignment and looked at the criteria for grading helped me with my paper.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Find the best free stock photography online

Find the best free stock photography online Make Money Online Queries? Struggling To Get Traffic To Your Blog? Sign Up On (HBB) Forum Now!Find the best free stock photography onlineUpdated On 06/04/2019Author : Ram kumarTopic : BusinessShort URL : CONNECT WITH HBB ON SOCIAL MEDIA Follow @HellBoundBlogPictures are an important part of the marketing for any business, blog or web design project. That is because a good business can complete a project or provide a service really well, and it is more likely to attract clients. However, it is not easy to get high-quality pictures that are relevant to your subject.Sometimes you might need to pay a photographer; however, this is something that small businesses can not really afford. Here is where stock photo databases come into play. While there are many sites that require a fee for their pictures, there are also numerous websites that provide high-quality pictures that can be used for any purposes, for free. Let’s go through some of the top options for free stock photos online.UnsplashUnsplash manages to offer something unique. Its pictures are definitely special and some of the most beautiful ones available online. Each day this website adds 10 new pictures so we can expect a large library at some point in the future.Unsplash allows you to search for the pictures that you need and you can do that by using certain categories or even keywords.Stock UpStock Up manages to gather free pictures from numerous free stock websites. This means that you will be able to search through numerous databases at once. Right now it has a compilation of 30 free stock photo websites, but that number might go up in the future. Each week they get new free pictures.BurstBurst is one of the websites you should keep an eye on. While its library is not too large at the moment, it has the potential to become one of the best free stock photo databases, as it adds hundreds of new picture every week. Additionally, all the pictures there are high-quality, and there are multiple categories that you can use. The search function will also come in handy when you are looking for a certain photo.READBusiness Metrics and Freelance Programmers, How to Make the Best Use of Them?FlickrFlickr is definitely one of the most well-known pictures databases, and it is one of the largest ones as well. While some pictures there are copyrighted, there are many users that agree to offer their photos for free. This means that those pictures can be used for commercial purposes.Flickr also has a useful search tool and you can select “commercial use allowed” so you can find all the images that are free to use. Then enter the keyword you want to find relevant images for your business.Negative SpaceThis website allows you to find exactly the pictures that you need. That is because the search tool is one of the most refined ones of any free stock photo site. You are able to search by color, category and even how the objects or persons are positioned in the photo.Deat h to the Stock PhotoThis website was created specifically for small brands, and they aim to create rich digital experiences that elevated their visual aesthetic without shelling out wads of cash, or their sanity. Allie and David are the two photographers behind it, and they offer their free packs of stock images via their mailing list.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Rise Of Andrew Jackson - 1696 Words

The Westward Movement The rise of Andrew Jackson, the first president form beyond the Appalachian Mountains, exemplified the inexorable westward march of the American people; the West, with its raw frontier, was the most typically American part of America The Republic and the people were so young —as late as 1850, half of Americans were under the age of thirty; By 1840 the â€Å"demographic center† of the American population map had crossed the Alleghenies; by the Civil War it had crossed the Ohio River Legend portraying men carving civilization out of the western woods were false as in reality, life was downright grim for most pioneer families in the West Poorly fed, ill-clad, housed in hastily erected shanties, they were perpetual victims of†¦show more content†¦Louis to the Rocky Mountain valley and waited for the trappers and Indians to arrive with beaver pelts to swap for manufactured goods from the East The trade thrived for two decades before the hats went out of style and fewer beavers Trade in buffalo robbers also flourished, leading eventually to the virtually total annihilation of the massive bison herds and still farther west, on the California coast, other traders bought up sea-otter pelts, driving otters to the point of near-extinction Aggressive, heedless exploitation of West natural bounty—â€Å"ecological imperialism† Yet Americans in this period also revered nature and admired its beauty; the spirit of nationalism fed the growing appreciation of the uniqueness of the American wilderness Searching for the United States’

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Effects Of Televised Media On Society - 1039 Words

Televised media is intrinsic in society in the United States today. One cannot go to the store or walk through the cities without seeing screens broadcasting news, anything from politics, to entertainment, to fashion, to sports. The majority of houses in America have a television set and news comes with the basic channels. People’s smartphones give news updates including sports scores. Although all this seems normal today, television and smart phones were not always a part of people’s lives. Hearing news stories through television has only emerged in the last 50-60 years, news information from a smart phone is less than a decade old, one of the oldest forms of communication of news, aside from word of mouth, is newspapers. The first†¦show more content†¦The journalists could portray sports any way they liked and with the lack of differing information, people would oftentimes believe them. The journalists’ writings about gender and race would repeatedly i nfluence people’s thinking of the subject. Newspapers were the leading way people in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century interacted with sport. Newspapers further influenced social thinking about race and gender during this time. Prior to the mid- nineteenth century, although newspapers were a common occurrence, there was a limited variety and they were expensive, the upper class could easily afford newspapers, but the working class struggled. If the working-class people read the newspaper it was often an outdated copy. The invention of the high-speed printing press changed this. Now papers could be printed far faster which led to more newspapers at cheaper prices. Newspapers were originally sixty cents each, but by the 1830s they were only one cent each, known as Penny Papers. â€Å"These advances led to a rise in the number of newspapers published, with more available at prices affordable to the working class- by 1860, about 3,000 newspapers were published in the U.S. with a circulation of roughly 1.5 million, in comparison with about 500 newspapers with a circulation of about 3,000 in 1820.† Now most people could afford up-to-date news stories. Furthermore, Christopher G. Bates, historian ofShow Mo reRelatedTo What Extent Is Media Violence Related to Aggressive and Violent Behavior?694 Words   |  3 Pagesbehavior by children and teenagers who watch those programs. As adults we think that watching TV won’t effect us since we are older, but for younger children when they see someone die or get beat up they think it is cool. Children are very easy to mold into what you want, how many times have you noticed a younger brother or sister imitate their older sibling. TV can have the same effect, for example a 10 year old boys favorite show was WWF wrestling and one day after watching he tried oneRead MoreEssay on Impact Of Television in Presidential Coverage1490 Words   |  6 Pages In the 1950s, television, having been introduced to political coverage as a new medium, surpassed the dominance of newspaper and radio media as the primary public source of information regarding politics by 1962. Political processes and events of various measures were all soon televised in recognition of overwhelmingly positive public feedback. By the 1970s, live coverage of major political events were as common as seeing grass on the ground. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Through the impact ofRead MoreTelevised Violence causes Aggression in Young Boys1555 Words   |  7 PagesTelevised Violence causes Aggression in Young Boys Young boys are evidently influenced by things in their environment such as media, peers, and family. Elementary school aged boys are influenced easily because these are critical years in developing their sense of individuality and social skills with their peers. The vulnerably of young boys are a reason why they are a target of the popular culture of displaying television violence because they have rarely encountered it in previous years so theyRead MoreStructural, Conflict, And Interactionists Perspectives Essay987 Words   |  4 Pageshighlight the contributions made by society that lead to social stability. Talcott Parsons, a key figure in the development of functionalist theory, viewed society as of a vast network of connected parts, each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole (Schaefer 2015). Conflict theorists take the approach that social behavior is understood in terms of tension between competing groups over power or the allocation of resources. Interactionist e xplain society by generalizing about the everydayRead More Capital Punishment Essay: Should Execution of Inmates be Televised?1559 Words   |  7 PagesShould the Execution of Death Row Inmates be Televised?      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On discussing the appeal of the highly-rated CBS television show, Survivor, host Jeff Probst said the appeal of the show lies in the idea that it is truly a human experience (Mason par. 3).   Now imagine a show in which American television viewers are permitted to watch the live execution of a Death Row inmate.   Would broadcasting a live execution have the same appeal as Survivor?   Or would televising an inmates executionRead MoreMedia Violence And The Media Essay864 Words   |  4 PagesExposure to the media violence may be especially problematic in late adolescence. Television and other media play a major role in adolescent socialization and identity development by providing perspectives, values, ideologies, and behavior models (Arnett G., Roberts D. et al.). The socializing role of television in particular may be ampliï ¬ ed by the large amount of time young people spend with this medium. Speciï ¬ cally, 18- to 24-year-olds spend more time watching te levision and movies than youngerRead MoreThe Trial Of Simpson : An Agenda Setting Analysis1508 Words   |  7 PagesAgenda-Setting Analysis Mariah Short University of Kentuckyâ€Æ' The Trial of O.J. Simpson: An Agenda-Setting Analysis During the infamous O.J. Simpson trial the television news media was ever present. Placing the trial as a top news story set in motion the idea that this trial was an important issue. However, the television news media was not successful at determining whether O.J. was guilty or not. For this reason, the O.J. Simpson trial is an excellent example of the Agenda Setting Theory. This paperRead More Postman: Rant or Reason? Essay1694 Words   |  7 Pagesa logical manner, explaining first the differences between todays media-driven society, and yesterdays typographic America. Postman goes on to discuss in the second half of his book the effects of todays media, politics on television, religion on television, and finally televised educational programs. All, he says, are making a detrimental imprint on our society, its values, and its standards. Postman explains that the media consists of fragment[s] of news (100), and politics are merely aRead MoreThe Significance of Television as a Prop aganda Tool During the Vietnam War1656 Words   |  7 Pageswere shown on the television every night. With the world being entrenched in a Cold War America wished to continue its war against the threat of Communism even if it took them to parts of the globe that were not of direct significance to American society. To never appear as though America was involved with the direct fighting, the government sent military advisors instead of troops although it would become impossible to separate the roles of these people. Many Americans refused to see Vietnam as ofRead MoreEssay on Censorship - News Must not be Censored615 Words   |  3 Pagesinforming the public is using television. Thus, the news is televised. Many believe that it is the news medias job to report to the public what is happening in our society. Some, on the other hand, claim the news media are only interested in increasing their ratings and do so by reporting events that are violent in nature. Those who believe this al so think that violence in the news has a direct effect on our society. Its precise effect would be dictating a societys behavior. Because the news is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen - 876 Words

A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen A Doll’s House takes place in the home of Torvald and Nora Helmer. Through conversation with Nora’s good friend Kristine Linde it is revealed that Mr. Helmer was ill around the same time Nora’s father died. Luckily Nora’s father left her enough money that Torvald and Nora could go on a life saving trip to Italy. But the truth comes out when we find out Nora’s father did not leave her a penny. We find out that Nora got a hold of the money through a loan but she signed her father s name as the cosigner. It is important to Nora that this scandal does not become public as to not hurt her husband s masculine ego. Unfortunately because her husband has become promoted, and her dear friend Kristine needs a job, a man named Mr.Krogstad will be fired. Mr Krogstad knows about the scandal and threatens to release the news of the forged signature. He will only release the news if Nora can convince Mr. Helmer to let Mr. Kro gstad to keep his job. The conflict in A Doll’s House is introduced through the first conversation Kristine and Nora have. Nora Tells Kristine about the money that paid for the trip to Italy that saved her husband s life. She reveals that she acquired the money her father did not pay for her trip. One example of rising action includes Mr. Krogstad coming to the Helmer house and threatening Nora saying he will go to the police if she can not save his job. Building on that the turning point is when Mr. Krogstad send the evidenceShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House1563 Words   |  7 Pages In the play, A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen, the title itself symbolizes the dependent and degraded role of the wife within traditional marriages. Ibsen portrayed the generous nature root into women by society, as well as the significant action of this nature, and lastly the need for them to find their own voice in a world ruled by men. Ibsen wrote this play in 1879, this is the era where women were obedient to men, tend the children until their husband came home, and stood by the Cult of DomesticityRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1717 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"A Doll, a Partner, and a Change† Social movement of women liberation toward equal rights and independence has been a big subject in human history. It happens not only in Europe but also all over the world. Though making progress, this movement has been advancing slowly and encountered backslashes from time to time. Maybe there is something deeply hidden which the society has not figured out yet, even women themselves. What do women want, freedom or good life? Most of the time, they are notRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1291 Words   |  6 Pages A Doll s House by Henrik Ibsen, is a play that has been written to withstand all time. In this play Ibsen highlights the importance of women’s rights. During the time period of the play these rights were neglected. Ibsen depicts the role of the woman was to stay at home, raise the children and attend to her husband during the 19th century. Nora is the woman in A Doll House who plays is portrayed as a victim. Michael Meyers said of Henrik Ibsen s plays: The common denominator in many of IbsenRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words   |  6 Pages Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage â€Å"laws† that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A Doll’s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about Nora’s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independentRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1298 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"There is beauty in truth, even if it s painful. Those who lie, twist life so that it looks tasty to the lazy, brilliant to the ignorant, and powerful to the weak. But lies only strengthen our defects. They don t teach anything, help anything, fix anything or cure anything. Nor do they develop one s character, one s mind, one s heart or one s soul.† (Josà © N. Harris). Nora Helmer’s choice to lie and deceive is inappropriate and wrong for women to do to her husband during this time period; itRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1037 Words   |  5 PagesHenrik Ibsen s A Doll s House is a work of literature genius. This three-act play involves many literary technics that are undermined by the average reader such as the fact that the plot shows the main characters Torvald and his wife Nora live the perfect life. An ironic paradox based around the fact that Nora and Torvald’s relationship is the complete opposite of perfect. Also, bringing upon a conflict as well, appearance versus reality. These little hidden meanings within stories are what areRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House Essay1501 Words   |  7 PagesHenrik Ibsen’s play â€Å"A Doll House† was set in the Victorian era, a time where women were highly respected. Women in this time period did not work, they had nannies to take care of their children and maids to take care of their homes. Many women had no real responsibilities, they spent their time having tea parties and socializing with their friends. Henrik Ibsen dared to show the realism of the Victorian era while everyone else would only focus on the romantic aspect. In the play, â€Å"A Doll House†Read MoreA Doll s House : Henrik Ibsen962 Words   |  4 PagesDrama Analysis A Doll’s House (Henrik Ibsen) And Trifles (Susan Glaspell) In comparing both dramas, the overwhelming aspect of convergence between both is the open discussion of gender identity. Both dramas make similar points about what it means to be a woman. Modern society in both dramas is constructed with men holding power over women. This is seen in Trifles in how men like George Henderson and Mr. Hale are myopic. The premise of the drama is how women worry over trifles, and the dismissiveRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1421 Words   |  6 PagesIn A Doll’s House, Henrik Ibsen examines conventional roles of men and women in the nineteenth century. In the play, Nora exemplifies the conventional feminine standard during that period. She seems to be powerless and confines herself through high standard expectations, demonstrating what the role of a women would be as a wife and mother. The protagonist of A Doll’s House is a woman named Nora Helmer. Ibsen shows how Nora’s design of perfect life gradually transforms when her sec ret unravels. InRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words   |  6 Pages Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage â€Å"laws† that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A Doll’s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about Nora’s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independent

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Information Systems and Transport Industry †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About the Information Systems and Transport Industry? Answer: Introduction As the Transport Industry is growing in every country, even in Australia, the need for managing it effectively and efficiently is critical. The diverse distribution of customers, growing demand, the environmental constraints and higher performance benchmarks are putting new challenges to the public transport systems. In order to provide a profitable and sustainable system, the public transport administration has to manage its resources and all the business processes efficiently (Bayat 2017). Information Technology and Systems (ITS) is of the most important enablers in managing the resources and business processes. Information has become the dominant enterprise resource of every organization, every market and every industry. A strategy to manage information is vital for the industry. Public transport systems that have good business practices but are not integrated completely will be ineffective, tending to ignore the needs of the customers and service providers, and will find it difficult to fulfill the expected roles. A non-integrated public transport will take away comfort from the passengers, provide ambiguous and unclear information to the users, will not be able to provide timetables harmonized to the needs of the customers, and unnecessarily increase the costs of travel (Dameri 2017). By establishing a good information system, the public transport system can function effectively. An integrated public transport system will benefit the users, operators, institution and the general public in many ways. Business Processes In order to establish a high quality public transport system in Australia, the key business processes involved in the execution of the transport activities must be explored (Frehe, Mehmann, Teuteberg 2017) Even before that the parameters to evaluate the quality of the transport system also must be available. The quality of transport system may be evaluated based on the following parameters i.e. Fastness of the transport Reliability of the schedules and time management Safety of the mode of transport Frequency of the availability of the transport Comfort level of the mode of transport Accessibility of the use of transport Pricing or cost of the travel Depending on the technology, resources and the political will available for a mode of transport, the above parameters can be varied. Whatever be the configuration of the quality of transport, the following key business processes need to be included in the management of public transport. Selection of technology or mode of transport for the public (political will is critical in this matter) Types of vehicles to be selected Procurement of vehicles and fleet Establishment of infrastructure for the public transport Operation of the fleet of vehicles Maintenance and servicing of the infrastructure and vehicles Maintaining a good passenger information service Managing the organizations related to public transport such as accounting, services, marketing, finance, information systems, Human resources, etc. Though separate information strategy need to be charted for each of the business processes, this report primarily focuses on the information strategy required for the passenger information services. Overview of the Passenger information systems and Business Requirements One of the criteria to evaluate a public transport system is to assess the passenger information system practiced by the public transport institution. A good passenger information service will enable a person to access the service easily and comfortably. The public transport institution that has strong information strategy will be able to provide correct, reliable and real-time information to the users before and during the journey (Margaritis, Anagnostopoulou, Tromaras Boile 2016). A typical passenger will be able to plan the journey point to point and carry it out with the help of reliable departure timings and route maps of the transport service. A good public system will have the following passenger information facility. Schedules, routes and transport network maps will be available at vital locations in the systems such as stations, within vehicle, in the website and other customer accessible touch points. The information provided will be clear coherent and useful for the passengers. An effective system to inform to the passengers about the real-time arrival and departure of an identifiable service. The public information will also display changes in schedules, detours and availability of alternate routes to the destinations. Information inside the vehicles about the journey, route characteristics, destinations, the standard stops, and the possible linkages to other transport services and modes will be displayed or announced in a language understandable to the users. The information within the vehicle also may include allied services of the public transport such as availability of parking space, retiring rooms, cloak storage, etc. A dynamic feature to the information system can be added by including a facility to calculate the most suitable route to the user in terms of route, cost and time. The information available should be easy to access at the right moment, at right location and through the right media. The customized and personalized information may be available to the customer regarding the journey and other services through mobile messaging, online communications, websites, public kiosks for information access through touch screens, QR code readers, Interactive voice responses, through mega screens in the stations, and public address systems. The public transport customer must be able to respond to the transport system by replying back to the messages and initiating payments to the services through multimodal payment facilities such as cash, transfer, credit cards, etc. Value added information such as distance to key destinations in the city, hiring other modes of transport, interesting places around each stop, providing information regarding basic amenities such as food, health care, lodging facilities, etc. shall be made available to the customer. The information should be presented in barrier free formats. One of the most important requirements of the information system should be to provide information to the challenged population and people with special needs. Appropriate systems to communicate and interact with people of special needs must also be included. The public transport authorities must be able to integrate the total information flow among the system and the users through appropriate technology and human intervention. System Requirements The Information infrastructure for a public transport system in Australia is likely to be massive. The passenger information administration function must be centralized and an integrated control must be applied to the service (Zurob, Allard, Macrio, Garcia Garcia 2016). For achieving such a system, the following components are to be included for the information systems. The specific technologies needed for the integrated system includes the following. Computer Systems Software for management decisions Software for integrated information and communication system Hardware for administrative computing Hardware for passenger computing Hardware for centralized control systems Communication Technology Telephones and other voice interactive equipments Radio technologies for wireless communications Other Technologies Bar coding and QR code readers Automated vehicle identification systems Large screen Display boards and touch screens Public address systems Global positioning systems Point of Sale systems and ticketing dispensers Payment gateways and Cash-handling equipments Common hardware includes data communications architecture, telecommunication architecture, data bases, operating system, application software, desk top computers, servers, networking cables and modems, etc. Public Buying Process in Australia and Vendor Selection for Public Transport Because the public transport is provided to the users by the support of the government, the procedure for acquiring the equipment needed for the passenger information service must be transparent and accountable to the government authorities. There are a number of policies to guide the acquisition of equipment for the project. The following principles are generally followed by the public institutions while purchasing resources for the public consumption i.e. Value for Money Buy Local Open and Effective Competition Integrity and Accountability. The policy of value for money guides the purchasing officer to demonstrate how the selected equipments are going to help the institution. It does not mean that the buying official has to purchase the lowest priced equipments. The value for resources is considered based on the outcomes the equipment can bring to the public in terms of economic, social and environmental benefits. The following are the criteria selected for determining value for money when purchasing for the public projects (Vaidya Campbell 2016). Consider life cycle cost of the equipment and not just the quoted price of the equipment Technical advantages of the informational resource or technology Ability to meet the contractual conditions Supplier capability and characteristics Risk factors associated with the purchase Other benefits to the public due to the purchase of the technology Buy Local Policy of the Australian government is to stimulate economic growth of the region. This policy is intended to maximize opportunities to the regional or local vendors so that the economic benefits trickle to all regions. The public projects take into consideration the following factors that are related to the policy of local buying. A comparison of buying from local versus buying from elsewhere. The characteristic of the local vendors Evidence of opportunity for industry development in the region Scope for creation of jobs or enhancements of the current job conditions Comparing the bids from local and other competitive vendors Assessment of net benefits to the State in terms of economic development, progress and effectiveness of the project implementation. Influence of Australias Free Trade Agreements also affects the purchase decisions while engaging in execution of public projects. The current bilateral agreements that are vital for international relations include the following. AUSFTA: Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement AClFTA: Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement KAFTA: Korea-Australia Free Trade Agreement JAEPA : Japan Australia Economic Partnership Agreement Software and Vendor Selection The software and hardware system that is required for the public transport will be assessed based on the functional and non-functional matters proposed in the system requirements. Following factors play prominent influence on the decisions of the vendor selection. multiple levels of software support and enhanced maintenance is required from the vendor Service Level Agreement (SLA) signed by the both parties shall determine the commercial relationship and both have the rights to escalate the demands, but are not mutually obliged to meet the demands. The project implementers have the choice to buy the standard package or commission a customized software system specifically for the public transport. Methods of Utilization of Technology The installation of Passenger intimation system with the help of the earlier listed technologies and equipments in the public-sector transport in Australia is expected to bring out the following outcomes. Benefits of Technology utilization for the public By providing relevant transport information to the public, the public transport can become an alternative to the use of private vehicles. Increased use of public transport can reduce the density of private vehicles on the road, diminish the chances of traffic congestions and reduce the impact on the environments (Patanakul, Kwak, Zwikael Liu 2016). Better informational services and on time schedules can help the public to save the time spent on waiting and the passengers can become productive with saved time. Benefits of Technology utilization for the Individuals Individual users will have reliable and real time information regarding the arrival and departure of transport. The individual people will be able to plan the journeys effectively and save the time due to non-travel procedures such as waiting ticketing queues, waiting for the vehicle, etc. Public transport companies and regulatory authorities will be able to gain appreciation from the public. The transport operating companies can build better brand of their service by providing real time information and increase in comfort of travel. Relevant communication will increase user satisfaction and reduce vandalism of disgruntled travelers. An effective use of informational and communication technology in public transport will affect the public and country I many ways. The tourists who visit the places in Australia will report good about the transportation services and more tourists are likely to visit the places. Evaluation of the Strategic Information Systems Various researches on public transport and passenger information systems have identified that often there is mismatch between the practice of providing information and the utility of the information. Many times, the information that is provided to the travelers is of no use to the receivers because the information is not real time oriented. Rehrl, et. al. (2007) has emphasized about the importance of integrated information system. The current system recommends using the emerging technologies also to increase the value of the information. The possibilities of mobile technology are valuable to the management of passenger information systems. The public transport system can now provide personalized and localized information the passengers. Passengers often seek variable information from the transport providers that has comprehensive and useful contents (Woodcock, Hoppe, Tavlaki, Jarzemskis, Georgiadis 2016). The users expect easily comprehensible and value added information to make travel decisions. The passenger information system must have the capability to automatically select the media depending on the user profile built through various commercial interactions in the past. For example, a passenger who uses the transport service at particular time of the day may be informed of the trip schedules organized for the time period. The strategy to provide context specific information must take into account the characteristics of the user, the media available, and the nature of the message or information. Selection of media be based on passengers usage history and feedback. As the ICT advances, the information must be value added, personalized and prescriptive. An effective passenger system not only saves time for the users, the anxiety and stress experienced by the passengers are also reduced through the reliable information broadcast. As the reliability of the information service increases, the passenger confidence also builds up. Precise information and prescriptive messages such as economical routes, mode of transport and the linkages with allied services will enable the passengers to sharpen their service to the market; this level of service can make the public transport a platform for business deployment. Ultimately, the passenger information system must increase comfort, save time and reduce anxiety for the users. Potential Security Risks and Data Breaches Public Transport network is becoming increasingly dependent on digital technology which has huge data flow that can be tracked and monitored physically as well as electronically. As the number of devices is connected to the information systems, the vulnerabilities are bound to increase. When the technology for information and communication advances the challenges of detecting the electronic fraud and controlling the disruption of system becomes difficult. Public systems that are interconnected for data transfer and data inputs are highly vulnerable. The mass transport infrastructure managers working in rail, aviation and logistics have experienced attacks by hackers that interrupted the networks physically and disrupted the business processes. The cost estimation of such data siege is huge seriously affecting the companys existence and growth. An understanding of the types of risks and the ways to mitigate is valuable in the public transport system. The common varieties of attacks are listed below. Risks from criminals Organized criminals in the digital world hack the popular websites and digital installations. Many are attacking the information networks for the thrill of, but some have monetary aims such as routing the digital monetary assets to their accounts or stealing the data such as personal information, credit card information, intellectual property, etc. and sell it to third party for a fee. Risks from Terrorists The ability to bring physical effects through digital networks has given the terrorists the power to disrupt data networks, bring damage to the technological assets, and cause even loss of lives. The economic consequences of terrorist attacks are enormous. Risks from Hacktivist Hacktivist groups are working for a cause and have sufficient technological competence to bring damage to the target organizations. Because of the public support, sometimes Hacktivists who damage data assets can escape as part of desirable activity. Risks from Malice Disgruntled individuals and employees sometimes act maliciously (towards digital servers) to revenge or vent off their anger. Sometimes the culprit works with targeted motive or randomly. Risks from State Rival nations who has dedicated and highly qualified teams engage in digital vandalism. The purpose of such attackers ranges from destroying intellectual property of the other nation to espionage of the defense secrets. Public transport institution must take preventive actions to mitigate the security risks. There is a misconception that organizations that are linked to internet only are vulnerable to data risks (Karchefsky Rao 2017). Any organization that rely on computer networks to transact business, control operations, run administration of functions, control automated devices through computer, store critical data, or process third party data are exposed to cyber threats. The solution to these risks can be mitigated with the following actions. The solution to cyber threats can be managed with the following steps. Establish best practices within the public transport organization with standard security guidelines and checks. The total organization must be involved in preventing the digital attacks. A risk governance structure must be established depending on the probable risks. A dedicated team to monitor the anomalies in the data flow and understand the emerging threats and risks must be appointed in the organization. Establish an incident-response procedure with tested steps to contain the damages and impact of the cyber-attacks. Conclusion This brief report provides very fundamental information related to the implementation of strategic information services in the field of Passenger information systems of public transport in Australia. A birds eye view of the business processes, business requirements, system requirements, technology acquisition process, evaluation of the systems and risks associated with the system are provided. Availability of the network technologies and software capabilities can help the public transport system improve the passenger information system in an integrated manner i.e. provide all the passengers with real time information and suggestions. The benefits of a good passenger information system are available not only for the customers; it affects positively the public, the operators and the State. Depending on the scale of operations, the public transport may use standard software or customized system to manage the passenger communications. There are mechanisms and measures that have also been developed to deal with these risks and attacks. These mechanisms shall be incorporated and it shall be made sure that the information is always kept protected. References Bayat, A., 2017. Survey of Strategic Design for Public Transportation. InAdvances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education(pp. 851-862). Springer International Publishing. Dameri, R.P., 2017. Using ICT in Smart City. InSmart City Implementation(pp. 45-65). Springer International Publishing. Frehe, V., Mehmann, J. and Teuteberg, F., 2017. 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