Thursday, May 14, 2020
Televised media is intrinsic in society in the United States today. One cannot go to the store or walk through the cities without seeing screens broadcasting news, anything from politics, to entertainment, to fashion, to sports. The majority of houses in America have a television set and news comes with the basic channels. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s smartphones give news updates including sports scores. Although all this seems normal today, television and smart phones were not always a part of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Hearing news stories through television has only emerged in the last 50-60 years, news information from a smart phone is less than a decade old, one of the oldest forms of communication of news, aside from word of mouth, is newspapers. The firstÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The journalists could portray sports any way they liked and with the lack of differing information, people would oftentimes believe them. The journalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ writings about gender and race would repeatedly i nfluence peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking of the subject. Newspapers were the leading way people in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century interacted with sport. Newspapers further influenced social thinking about race and gender during this time. Prior to the mid- nineteenth century, although newspapers were a common occurrence, there was a limited variety and they were expensive, the upper class could easily afford newspapers, but the working class struggled. If the working-class people read the newspaper it was often an outdated copy. The invention of the high-speed printing press changed this. Now papers could be printed far faster which led to more newspapers at cheaper prices. Newspapers were originally sixty cents each, but by the 1830s they were only one cent each, known as Penny Papers. Ã¢â¬Å"These advances led to a rise in the number of newspapers published, with more available at prices affordable to the working class- by 1860, about 3,000 newspapers were published in the U.S. with a circulation of roughly 1.5 million, in comparison with about 500 newspapers with a circulation of about 3,000 in 1820.Ã¢â¬ Now most people could afford up-to-date news stories. Furthermore, Christopher G. Bates, historian ofShow Mo reRelatedTo What Extent Is Media Violence Related to Aggressive and Violent Behavior?694 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesbehavior by children and teenagers who watch those programs. As adults we think that watching TV wonÃ¢â¬â¢t effect us since we are older, but for younger children when they see someone die or get beat up they think it is cool. Children are very easy to mold into what you want, how many times have you noticed a younger brother or sister imitate their older sibling. TV can have the same effect, for example a 10 year old boys favorite show was WWF wrestling and one day after watching he tried oneRead MoreEssay on Impact Of Television in Presidential Coverage1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages In the 1950s, television, having been introduced to political coverage as a new medium, surpassed the dominance of newspaper and radio media as the primary public source of information regarding politics by 1962. Political processes and events of various measures were all soon televised in recognition of overwhelmingly positive public feedback. By the 1970s, live coverage of major political events were as common as seeing grass on the ground. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Through the impact ofRead MoreTelevised Violence causes Aggression in Young Boys1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTelevised Violence causes Aggression in Young Boys Young boys are evidently influenced by things in their environment such as media, peers, and family. Elementary school aged boys are influenced easily because these are critical years in developing their sense of individuality and social skills with their peers. The vulnerably of young boys are a reason why they are a target of the popular culture of displaying television violence because they have rarely encountered it in previous years so theyRead MoreStructural, Conflict, And Interactionists Perspectives Essay987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshighlight the contributions made by society that lead to social stability. Talcott Parsons, a key figure in the development of functionalist theory, viewed society as of a vast network of connected parts, each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole (Schaefer 2015). Conflict theorists take the approach that social behavior is understood in terms of tension between competing groups over power or the allocation of resources. Interactionist e xplain society by generalizing about the everydayRead More Capital Punishment Essay: Should Execution of Inmates be Televised?1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShould the Execution of Death Row Inmates be Televised? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On discussing the appeal of the highly-rated CBS television show, Survivor, host Jeff Probst said the appeal of the show lies in the idea that it is truly a human experience (Mason par. 3).Ã Now imagine a show in which American television viewers are permitted to watch the live execution of a Death Row inmate.Ã Would broadcasting a live execution have the same appeal as Survivor?Ã Or would televising an inmates executionRead MoreMedia Violence And The Media Essay864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesExposure to the media violence may be especially problematic in late adolescence. Television and other media play a major role in adolescent socialization and identity development by providing perspectives, values, ideologies, and behavior models (Arnett G., Roberts D. et al.). The socializing role of television in particular may be ampliÃ¯ ¬ ed by the large amount of time young people spend with this medium. SpeciÃ¯ ¬ cally, 18- to 24-year-olds spend more time watching te levision and movies than youngerRead MoreThe Trial Of Simpson : An Agenda Setting Analysis1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAgenda-Setting Analysis Mariah Short University of KentuckyÃ¢â¬Æ' The Trial of O.J. Simpson: An Agenda-Setting Analysis During the infamous O.J. Simpson trial the television news media was ever present. Placing the trial as a top news story set in motion the idea that this trial was an important issue. However, the television news media was not successful at determining whether O.J. was guilty or not. For this reason, the O.J. Simpson trial is an excellent example of the Agenda Setting Theory. This paperRead More Postman: Rant or Reason? Essay1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa logical manner, explaining first the differences between todays media-driven society, and yesterdays typographic America. Postman goes on to discuss in the second half of his book the effects of todays media, politics on television, religion on television, and finally televised educational programs. All, he says, are making a detrimental imprint on our society, its values, and its standards. Postman explains that the media consists of fragment[s] of news (100), and politics are merely aRead MoreThe Significance of Television as a Prop aganda Tool During the Vietnam War1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswere shown on the television every night. With the world being entrenched in a Cold War America wished to continue its war against the threat of Communism even if it took them to parts of the globe that were not of direct significance to American society. To never appear as though America was involved with the direct fighting, the government sent military advisors instead of troops although it would become impossible to separate the roles of these people. Many Americans refused to see Vietnam as ofRead MoreEssay on Censorship - News Must not be Censored615 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesinforming the public is using television. Thus, the news is televised. Many believe that it is the news medias job to report to the public what is happening in our society. Some, on the other hand, claim the news media are only interested in increasing their ratings and do so by reporting events that are violent in nature. Those who believe this al so think that violence in the news has a direct effect on our society. Its precise effect would be dictating a societys behavior. Because the news is
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House takes place in the home of Torvald and Nora Helmer. Through conversation with NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s good friend Kristine Linde it is revealed that Mr. Helmer was ill around the same time NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father died. Luckily NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father left her enough money that Torvald and Nora could go on a life saving trip to Italy. But the truth comes out when we find out NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father did not leave her a penny. We find out that Nora got a hold of the money through a loan but she signed her father s name as the cosigner. It is important to Nora that this scandal does not become public as to not hurt her husband s masculine ego. Unfortunately because her husband has become promoted, and her dear friend Kristine needs a job, a man named Mr.Krogstad will be fired. Mr Krogstad knows about the scandal and threatens to release the news of the forged signature. He will only release the news if Nora can convince Mr. Helmer to let Mr. Kro gstad to keep his job. The conflict in A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is introduced through the first conversation Kristine and Nora have. Nora Tells Kristine about the money that paid for the trip to Italy that saved her husband s life. She reveals that she acquired the money her father did not pay for her trip. One example of rising action includes Mr. Krogstad coming to the Helmer house and threatening Nora saying he will go to the police if she can not save his job. Building on that the turning point is when Mr. Krogstad send the evidenceShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the play, A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen, the title itself symbolizes the dependent and degraded role of the wife within traditional marriages. Ibsen portrayed the generous nature root into women by society, as well as the significant action of this nature, and lastly the need for them to find their own voice in a world ruled by men. Ibsen wrote this play in 1879, this is the era where women were obedient to men, tend the children until their husband came home, and stood by the Cult of DomesticityRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Doll, a Partner, and a ChangeÃ¢â¬ Social movement of women liberation toward equal rights and independence has been a big subject in human history. It happens not only in Europe but also all over the world. Though making progress, this movement has been advancing slowly and encountered backslashes from time to time. Maybe there is something deeply hidden which the society has not figured out yet, even women themselves. What do women want, freedom or good life? Most of the time, they are notRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Doll s House by Henrik Ibsen, is a play that has been written to withstand all time. In this play Ibsen highlights the importance of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. During the time period of the play these rights were neglected. Ibsen depicts the role of the woman was to stay at home, raise the children and attend to her husband during the 19th century. Nora is the woman in A Doll House who plays is portrayed as a victim. Michael Meyers said of Henrik Ibsen s plays: The common denominator in many of IbsenRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage Ã¢â¬Å"lawsÃ¢â¬ that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independentRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"There is beauty in truth, even if it s painful. Those who lie, twist life so that it looks tasty to the lazy, brilliant to the ignorant, and powerful to the weak. But lies only strengthen our defects. They don t teach anything, help anything, fix anything or cure anything. Nor do they develop one s character, one s mind, one s heart or one s soul.Ã¢â¬ (JosÃ © N. Harris). Nora HelmerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to lie and deceive is inappropriate and wrong for women to do to her husband during this time period; itRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHenrik Ibsen s A Doll s House is a work of literature genius. This three-act play involves many literary technics that are undermined by the average reader such as the fact that the plot shows the main characters Torvald and his wife Nora live the perfect life. An ironic paradox based around the fact that Nora and TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is the complete opposite of perfect. Also, bringing upon a conflict as well, appearance versus reality. These little hidden meanings within stories are what areRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House Essay1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ was set in the Victorian era, a time where women were highly respected. Women in this time period did not work, they had nannies to take care of their children and maids to take care of their homes. Many women had no real responsibilities, they spent their time having tea parties and socializing with their friends. Henrik Ibsen dared to show the realism of the Victorian era while everyone else would only focus on the romantic aspect. In the play, Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ Read MoreA Doll s House : Henrik Ibsen962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDrama Analysis A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House (Henrik Ibsen) And Trifles (Susan Glaspell) In comparing both dramas, the overwhelming aspect of convergence between both is the open discussion of gender identity. Both dramas make similar points about what it means to be a woman. Modern society in both dramas is constructed with men holding power over women. This is seen in Trifles in how men like George Henderson and Mr. Hale are myopic. The premise of the drama is how women worry over trifles, and the dismissiveRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, Henrik Ibsen examines conventional roles of men and women in the nineteenth century. In the play, Nora exemplifies the conventional feminine standard during that period. She seems to be powerless and confines herself through high standard expectations, demonstrating what the role of a women would be as a wife and mother. The protagonist of A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is a woman named Nora Helmer. Ibsen shows how NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s design of perfect life gradually transforms when her sec ret unravels. InRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage Ã¢â¬Å"lawsÃ¢â¬ that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independent
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss About the Information Systems and Transport Industry? Answer: Introduction As the Transport Industry is growing in every country, even in Australia, the need for managing it effectively and efficiently is critical. The diverse distribution of customers, growing demand, the environmental constraints and higher performance benchmarks are putting new challenges to the public transport systems. In order to provide a profitable and sustainable system, the public transport administration has to manage its resources and all the business processes efficiently (Bayat 2017). Information Technology and Systems (ITS) is of the most important enablers in managing the resources and business processes. Information has become the dominant enterprise resource of every organization, every market and every industry. A strategy to manage information is vital for the industry. Public transport systems that have good business practices but are not integrated completely will be ineffective, tending to ignore the needs of the customers and service providers, and will find it difficult to fulfill the expected roles. A non-integrated public transport will take away comfort from the passengers, provide ambiguous and unclear information to the users, will not be able to provide timetables harmonized to the needs of the customers, and unnecessarily increase the costs of travel (Dameri 2017). By establishing a good information system, the public transport system can function effectively. An integrated public transport system will benefit the users, operators, institution and the general public in many ways. Business Processes In order to establish a high quality public transport system in Australia, the key business processes involved in the execution of the transport activities must be explored (Frehe, Mehmann, Teuteberg 2017) Even before that the parameters to evaluate the quality of the transport system also must be available. The quality of transport system may be evaluated based on the following parameters i.e. Fastness of the transport Reliability of the schedules and time management Safety of the mode of transport Frequency of the availability of the transport Comfort level of the mode of transport Accessibility of the use of transport Pricing or cost of the travel Depending on the technology, resources and the political will available for a mode of transport, the above parameters can be varied. Whatever be the configuration of the quality of transport, the following key business processes need to be included in the management of public transport. Selection of technology or mode of transport for the public (political will is critical in this matter) Types of vehicles to be selected Procurement of vehicles and fleet Establishment of infrastructure for the public transport Operation of the fleet of vehicles Maintenance and servicing of the infrastructure and vehicles Maintaining a good passenger information service Managing the organizations related to public transport such as accounting, services, marketing, finance, information systems, Human resources, etc. Though separate information strategy need to be charted for each of the business processes, this report primarily focuses on the information strategy required for the passenger information services. Overview of the Passenger information systems and Business Requirements One of the criteria to evaluate a public transport system is to assess the passenger information system practiced by the public transport institution. A good passenger information service will enable a person to access the service easily and comfortably. The public transport institution that has strong information strategy will be able to provide correct, reliable and real-time information to the users before and during the journey (Margaritis, Anagnostopoulou, Tromaras Boile 2016). A typical passenger will be able to plan the journey point to point and carry it out with the help of reliable departure timings and route maps of the transport service. A good public system will have the following passenger information facility. Schedules, routes and transport network maps will be available at vital locations in the systems such as stations, within vehicle, in the website and other customer accessible touch points. The information provided will be clear coherent and useful for the passengers. An effective system to inform to the passengers about the real-time arrival and departure of an identifiable service. The public information will also display changes in schedules, detours and availability of alternate routes to the destinations. Information inside the vehicles about the journey, route characteristics, destinations, the standard stops, and the possible linkages to other transport services and modes will be displayed or announced in a language understandable to the users. The information within the vehicle also may include allied services of the public transport such as availability of parking space, retiring rooms, cloak storage, etc. A dynamic feature to the information system can be added by including a facility to calculate the most suitable route to the user in terms of route, cost and time. The information available should be easy to access at the right moment, at right location and through the right media. The customized and personalized information may be available to the customer regarding the journey and other services through mobile messaging, online communications, websites, public kiosks for information access through touch screens, QR code readers, Interactive voice responses, through mega screens in the stations, and public address systems. The public transport customer must be able to respond to the transport system by replying back to the messages and initiating payments to the services through multimodal payment facilities such as cash, transfer, credit cards, etc. Value added information such as distance to key destinations in the city, hiring other modes of transport, interesting places around each stop, providing information regarding basic amenities such as food, health care, lodging facilities, etc. shall be made available to the customer. The information should be presented in barrier free formats. One of the most important requirements of the information system should be to provide information to the challenged population and people with special needs. Appropriate systems to communicate and interact with people of special needs must also be included. The public transport authorities must be able to integrate the total information flow among the system and the users through appropriate technology and human intervention. System Requirements The Information infrastructure for a public transport system in Australia is likely to be massive. The passenger information administration function must be centralized and an integrated control must be applied to the service (Zurob, Allard, Macrio, Garcia Garcia 2016). For achieving such a system, the following components are to be included for the information systems. The specific technologies needed for the integrated system includes the following. Computer Systems Software for management decisions Software for integrated information and communication system Hardware for administrative computing Hardware for passenger computing Hardware for centralized control systems Communication Technology Telephones and other voice interactive equipments Radio technologies for wireless communications Other Technologies Bar coding and QR code readers Automated vehicle identification systems Large screen Display boards and touch screens Public address systems Global positioning systems Point of Sale systems and ticketing dispensers Payment gateways and Cash-handling equipments Common hardware includes data communications architecture, telecommunication architecture, data bases, operating system, application software, desk top computers, servers, networking cables and modems, etc. Public Buying Process in Australia and Vendor Selection for Public Transport Because the public transport is provided to the users by the support of the government, the procedure for acquiring the equipment needed for the passenger information service must be transparent and accountable to the government authorities. There are a number of policies to guide the acquisition of equipment for the project. The following principles are generally followed by the public institutions while purchasing resources for the public consumption i.e. Value for Money Buy Local Open and Effective Competition Integrity and Accountability. The policy of value for money guides the purchasing officer to demonstrate how the selected equipments are going to help the institution. It does not mean that the buying official has to purchase the lowest priced equipments. The value for resources is considered based on the outcomes the equipment can bring to the public in terms of economic, social and environmental benefits. The following are the criteria selected for determining value for money when purchasing for the public projects (Vaidya Campbell 2016). Consider life cycle cost of the equipment and not just the quoted price of the equipment Technical advantages of the informational resource or technology Ability to meet the contractual conditions Supplier capability and characteristics Risk factors associated with the purchase Other benefits to the public due to the purchase of the technology Buy Local Policy of the Australian government is to stimulate economic growth of the region. This policy is intended to maximize opportunities to the regional or local vendors so that the economic benefits trickle to all regions. The public projects take into consideration the following factors that are related to the policy of local buying. A comparison of buying from local versus buying from elsewhere. The characteristic of the local vendors Evidence of opportunity for industry development in the region Scope for creation of jobs or enhancements of the current job conditions Comparing the bids from local and other competitive vendors Assessment of net benefits to the State in terms of economic development, progress and effectiveness of the project implementation. Influence of Australias Free Trade Agreements also affects the purchase decisions while engaging in execution of public projects. The current bilateral agreements that are vital for international relations include the following. AUSFTA: Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement AClFTA: Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement KAFTA: Korea-Australia Free Trade Agreement JAEPA : Japan Australia Economic Partnership Agreement Software and Vendor Selection The software and hardware system that is required for the public transport will be assessed based on the functional and non-functional matters proposed in the system requirements. Following factors play prominent influence on the decisions of the vendor selection. multiple levels of software support and enhanced maintenance is required from the vendor Service Level Agreement (SLA) signed by the both parties shall determine the commercial relationship and both have the rights to escalate the demands, but are not mutually obliged to meet the demands. The project implementers have the choice to buy the standard package or commission a customized software system specifically for the public transport. Methods of Utilization of Technology The installation of Passenger intimation system with the help of the earlier listed technologies and equipments in the public-sector transport in Australia is expected to bring out the following outcomes. Benefits of Technology utilization for the public By providing relevant transport information to the public, the public transport can become an alternative to the use of private vehicles. Increased use of public transport can reduce the density of private vehicles on the road, diminish the chances of traffic congestions and reduce the impact on the environments (Patanakul, Kwak, Zwikael Liu 2016). Better informational services and on time schedules can help the public to save the time spent on waiting and the passengers can become productive with saved time. Benefits of Technology utilization for the Individuals Individual users will have reliable and real time information regarding the arrival and departure of transport. The individual people will be able to plan the journeys effectively and save the time due to non-travel procedures such as waiting ticketing queues, waiting for the vehicle, etc. Public transport companies and regulatory authorities will be able to gain appreciation from the public. The transport operating companies can build better brand of their service by providing real time information and increase in comfort of travel. Relevant communication will increase user satisfaction and reduce vandalism of disgruntled travelers. An effective use of informational and communication technology in public transport will affect the public and country I many ways. The tourists who visit the places in Australia will report good about the transportation services and more tourists are likely to visit the places. Evaluation of the Strategic Information Systems Various researches on public transport and passenger information systems have identified that often there is mismatch between the practice of providing information and the utility of the information. Many times, the information that is provided to the travelers is of no use to the receivers because the information is not real time oriented. Rehrl, et. al. (2007) has emphasized about the importance of integrated information system. The current system recommends using the emerging technologies also to increase the value of the information. The possibilities of mobile technology are valuable to the management of passenger information systems. The public transport system can now provide personalized and localized information the passengers. Passengers often seek variable information from the transport providers that has comprehensive and useful contents (Woodcock, Hoppe, Tavlaki, Jarzemskis, Georgiadis 2016). The users expect easily comprehensible and value added information to make travel decisions. The passenger information system must have the capability to automatically select the media depending on the user profile built through various commercial interactions in the past. For example, a passenger who uses the transport service at particular time of the day may be informed of the trip schedules organized for the time period. The strategy to provide context specific information must take into account the characteristics of the user, the media available, and the nature of the message or information. Selection of media be based on passengers usage history and feedback. As the ICT advances, the information must be value added, personalized and prescriptive. An effective passenger system not only saves time for the users, the anxiety and stress experienced by the passengers are also reduced through the reliable information broadcast. As the reliability of the information service increases, the passenger confidence also builds up. Precise information and prescriptive messages such as economical routes, mode of transport and the linkages with allied services will enable the passengers to sharpen their service to the market; this level of service can make the public transport a platform for business deployment. Ultimately, the passenger information system must increase comfort, save time and reduce anxiety for the users. Potential Security Risks and Data Breaches Public Transport network is becoming increasingly dependent on digital technology which has huge data flow that can be tracked and monitored physically as well as electronically. As the number of devices is connected to the information systems, the vulnerabilities are bound to increase. When the technology for information and communication advances the challenges of detecting the electronic fraud and controlling the disruption of system becomes difficult. Public systems that are interconnected for data transfer and data inputs are highly vulnerable. The mass transport infrastructure managers working in rail, aviation and logistics have experienced attacks by hackers that interrupted the networks physically and disrupted the business processes. The cost estimation of such data siege is huge seriously affecting the companys existence and growth. An understanding of the types of risks and the ways to mitigate is valuable in the public transport system. The common varieties of attacks are listed below. Risks from criminals Organized criminals in the digital world hack the popular websites and digital installations. Many are attacking the information networks for the thrill of, but some have monetary aims such as routing the digital monetary assets to their accounts or stealing the data such as personal information, credit card information, intellectual property, etc. and sell it to third party for a fee. Risks from Terrorists The ability to bring physical effects through digital networks has given the terrorists the power to disrupt data networks, bring damage to the technological assets, and cause even loss of lives. The economic consequences of terrorist attacks are enormous. Risks from Hacktivist Hacktivist groups are working for a cause and have sufficient technological competence to bring damage to the target organizations. Because of the public support, sometimes Hacktivists who damage data assets can escape as part of desirable activity. Risks from Malice Disgruntled individuals and employees sometimes act maliciously (towards digital servers) to revenge or vent off their anger. Sometimes the culprit works with targeted motive or randomly. Risks from State Rival nations who has dedicated and highly qualified teams engage in digital vandalism. The purpose of such attackers ranges from destroying intellectual property of the other nation to espionage of the defense secrets. Public transport institution must take preventive actions to mitigate the security risks. There is a misconception that organizations that are linked to internet only are vulnerable to data risks (Karchefsky Rao 2017). Any organization that rely on computer networks to transact business, control operations, run administration of functions, control automated devices through computer, store critical data, or process third party data are exposed to cyber threats. The solution to these risks can be mitigated with the following actions. The solution to cyber threats can be managed with the following steps. Establish best practices within the public transport organization with standard security guidelines and checks. The total organization must be involved in preventing the digital attacks. A risk governance structure must be established depending on the probable risks. A dedicated team to monitor the anomalies in the data flow and understand the emerging threats and risks must be appointed in the organization. Establish an incident-response procedure with tested steps to contain the damages and impact of the cyber-attacks. Conclusion This brief report provides very fundamental information related to the implementation of strategic information services in the field of Passenger information systems of public transport in Australia. A birds eye view of the business processes, business requirements, system requirements, technology acquisition process, evaluation of the systems and risks associated with the system are provided. Availability of the network technologies and software capabilities can help the public transport system improve the passenger information system in an integrated manner i.e. provide all the passengers with real time information and suggestions. The benefits of a good passenger information system are available not only for the customers; it affects positively the public, the operators and the State. Depending on the scale of operations, the public transport may use standard software or customized system to manage the passenger communications. There are mechanisms and measures that have also been developed to deal with these risks and attacks. These mechanisms shall be incorporated and it shall be made sure that the information is always kept protected. References Bayat, A., 2017. Survey of Strategic Design for Public Transportation. InAdvances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education(pp. 851-862). Springer International Publishing. Dameri, R.P., 2017. Using ICT in Smart City. InSmart City Implementation(pp. 45-65). Springer International Publishing. Frehe, V., Mehmann, J. and Teuteberg, F., 2017. Understanding and assessing crowd logistics business models-using everyday people for last mile delivery.Journal of Business Industrial Marketing,32(1). Karchefsky, S. and Rao, H.R., 2017. Toward a Safer Tomorrow: Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure. InThe Palgrave Handbook of Managing Continuous Business Transformation(pp. 335-352). Palgrave Macmillan UK. Margaritis, D., Anagnostopoulou, A., Tromaras, A. and Boile, M., 2016. Research in Transportation Business Management. Patanakul, P., Kwak, Y.H., Zwikael, O. and Liu, M., 2016. What impacts the performance of large-scale government projects?International Journal of Project Management,34(3), pp.452-466. Vaidya, K. and Campbell, J., 2016. Multidisciplinary approach to defining public e-procurement and evaluating its impact on procurement efficiency.Information Systems Frontiers,18(2), pp.333-348. Woodcock, A., Hoppe, M., Tavlaki, E., Jarzemskis, A. and Georgiadis, G., 2016. 13 Strategies for integrating and optimizing transport systems.Designing Mobility and Transport Services: Developing traveler experience tools. Zurob, C., Allard, J.M., Macrio, R., Garcia, B. and Garcia, C., 2016. Passenger information systems.Restructuring Public Transport Through Bus Rapid Transit: An International and Interdisciplinary Perspective,247.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
4th Grade Math Lesson on Factor Trees Students create a factor tree with numbers between 1 and 100. Grade Level Fourth Grade DurationÃ One class period, 45 minutes in length Materials blackboard or whiteboardpaper for students to write onIf you prefer a more artistic touch, copies with four evergreen tree shapes per page Key VocabularyÃ factor, multiple, prime number, multiply, divide. Objectives In this lesson, students will create factor trees. Standards Met 4.OA.4: Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite. Lesson IntroductionÃ Decide ahead of time whether or not you wish to do this as part of a holiday assignment. If you prefer not to connect this to winter and/or the holiday season, skip Step #3 and references to the holiday season. Step-by Step Procedure Discuss learning target- to identify all of the factors of 24 and other numbers between 1 and 100.Review with students the definition of a factor. And why do we need to know the factors of a particular number? As they get older, and have to work more with fractions with like and unlike denominators, factors grow increasingly important.Draw a simple evergreen tree shape at the top of the board. Tell students that one of the best ways to learn about factors is by using a tree shape.Begin with the number 12 at the top of the tree. Ask students what two numbers can be multiplied together to get the number 12. For example, 3 and 4. Underneath the number 12, write 3 x 4. Reinforce with students that they have now found two factors of the number 12.Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s examine the number 3. What are the factors of 3? What two numbers can we multiply together to get 3? Students should come up with 3 and 1.Show them on the board that if we put down the factors 3 and 1, then we would be continuing this work forever. When we get to a number where the factors are the number itself and 1, we have a prime number and we are done factoring it. Circle the 3 so that you and your students know that they are done. Draw their attention back to the number 4. What two numbers are factors of 4? (If students volunteer 4 and 1, remind them that we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t using the number and itself. Are there any other factors?)Below the number 4, write down 2 x 2.Ask students if there are any other factors to consider with the number 2. Students should agree that these two numbers are Ã¢â¬Å"factored outÃ¢â¬ , and should be circled as prime numbers.Repeat this with the number 20. If your students seem confident about their factoring abilities, have them come to the board to mark the factors.If it is appropriate to refer to Christmas in your classroom, ask student which number they think has more factorsÃ¢â¬â24 (for Christmas Eve) or 25 (for Christmas Day)? Conduct a factor tree contest with half of the class factoring 24 and the other half factoring 25. Homework/AssessmentÃ Send students home with a tree worksheet or a blank sheet of paper and the following numbers to factor: 10099514036 EvaluationÃ At the end of math class, give your students a quick Exit Slip as an assessment. Have them pull a half sheet of paper out of a notebook or binder and factor the number 16. Collect those at the end of math class and use that to guide your instruction the next day. If most of your class is successful at factoring 16, make a note to yourself to meet with the small group that is struggling. If many students have trouble with this one, try to provide some alternate activities for the students who understand the concept and reteach the lesson to the larger group.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Kiva - Ancestral Pueblo Ceremonial Structures A kiva is a special purpose building used by Ancestral Puebloan (previously known as Anasazi) people in the American southwest and Mexican northwest. The earliest, and simplest, examples of kivas are known from Chaco Canyon for the late Basketmaker III phase (500Ã¢â¬â700 CE). Kivas are still in use among contemporary Puebloan people, as a gathering place used when communities reunite to perform rituals and ceremonies.Ã Key Takeaways: Kiva A kiva is a ceremonial building used by Ancestral Puebloan people.The earliest are known from Chaco Canyon about 599 CE, and they are still used today by contemporary Puebloan people.Ã Archaeologists identify ancient kivas based on a series of architectural characteristics.They can be round or square, subterranean, semi-subterranean, or at ground level.Ã A sipapu in a kiva is a small hole thought to represent a door to the underworld. Kiva Functions Prehistorically, there was typically about one kiva for every 15 to 50 domestic structures. In modern pueblos, the number of kivas varies for each village. Kiva ceremonies today are mainly performed by male community members, although women and visitors can attend some of the performances. Among Eastern Pueblo groups kivas are usually round in shape, but among Western Puebloan groups (such as Hopi and Zuni) they are usually square. Although it is difficult to generalize across the entire American southwest over time, kivas likely function(ed) as meeting places, structures used by subsets of the community for a variety of socially integrative and domestic activities. Larger ones, called Great Kivas, are larger structures typically built by and for the whole community. They are typically greater than 30 m square in floor area. Kiva Architecture When archaeologists characterize a prehistoric structure as a kiva, they typically use the presence of one or more of several distinguishing traits, the most recognizable of which is being partly or completely underground: most kivas are entered through the roofs. The other common traits used to define kivas include deflectors, fire pits, benches, ventilators, floor vaults, wall niches, and sipapus. hearths or fire pits: hearths in the later kivas are lined with adobe brick and have rims or collars above the floor level and ash pits to the east or northeast of the hearthsdeflectors: a deflector is a method of keeping the ventilating wind from affecting the fire, and they range from stones set into the eastern lip of the adobe hearth to U-shaped walls partially surrounding the hearth complexventilator shafts oriented toward the east: all subterranean kivas need ventilation to be bearable, and roof ventilation shafts are typically oriented to the east although south-oriented shafts are common in the Western Anasazi region, and some kivas have second subsidiary openings to the west to provide increased airflow.benches or banquettes: some kivas have raised platforms or benches in place along the wallsfloor vaultsalso known as foot drums or spirit channels, floor vaults are subfloor channels radiating out from the central hearth or in parallel lines across the floorsipapus: a small h ole cut into the floor, a hole known in modern Puebloan cultures as shipap, the place of emergence or place of origin, where humans emerged from the underworld wall niches: recesses cut into the walls that may represent similar functions as sipapus and in some locations are part of painted murals These features arent always present in every kiva, and it has been suggested that in general, smaller communities used general use structures as occasional kivas, while larger communities had larger, ritually specialized facilities. Pithouse- Kiva Debate The main identifying characteristic of a prehistoric kiva is that it was built at least partly underground. This characteristic is linked by archaeologists to earlier subterranean but (mainly) residential pithouses, which were typical of ancestral Puebloan societies prior to the technological innovation of adobe brick. The changeover from subterranean houses as domestic residences to exclusively ritual functions is central to pithouse to pueblo transition models, associated as it is with the innovation of adobe brick technology. Adobe surface architecture spread across the Anasazi world between 900Ã¢â¬â1200 CE (depending on the region). The fact that a kiva is subterranean is not a coincidence: kivas are associated with origin mythsÃ and the fact that theyre built subterranean may have to do with anÃ ancestral memory of when everyone lived underground. Archaeologists recognize when a pithouse functioned as a kiva by the characteristics listed above: but after about 1200, most structures were built above ground and subterranean structures stopped including features typical of a kiva. The debate centers on a handful of questions. Are those pithouses without kiva-like structures built after above-ground pueblos were common really kivas? Can it be that kivas built before above-ground structures are simply not being recognized? And eventually- is how archaeologists define a kiva truly representing kiva rituals? Mealing Rooms as Womens Kivas As has been noted in several ethnographic studies, kivas are primarily places where men congregate. Anthropologist Jeannette Mobley-Tanaka (1997) has suggested that womens rituals may have been associated with mealing houses. Mealing rooms or houses are subterranean structures where people (presumably women) ground maize. The rooms held artifacts and furniture associated with grain grinding, such as manos, metates, and hammerstones, and they also have corrugated pottery jars and bin storage facilities. Mobley-Tanaka noted that in her admittedly small test case, the ratio of mealing rooms to kivas is 1:1, and most mealing rooms were located geographically close to kivas. Great Kiva In Chaco Canyon, the better-known kivas were constructed between 1000 and 1100 CE, during the Classic Bonito phase. The largest of these structures are called Great Kivas, and large and small-sized kivas are associated with Great House sites, such as Pueblo Bonito, PeÃ ±asco Blanco, Chetro Ketl, and Pueblo Alto. In these sites, great kivas were built in central, open plazas. A different type is the isolated great kiva such as the site of Casa Rinconada, which probably functioned as a central place for adjacent, smaller communities. Archaeological excavations have shown that kiva roofs were supported by wooden beams. This wood, mainly from Ponderosa pines and spruces, had to come from a huge distanceÃ since Chaco Canyon was a region poor of such forests. The use of timber, arriving at Chaco Canyon through such a long-distance network, must, therefore, have reflected an incredible symbolic power. In the Mimbres region, great kivas began to disappear by the mid-1100s or so, replaced by plazas, perhaps a result of contact with Mesoamerican groups on the Gulf Coast. Plazas provide public, visible space for shared communal activities in contrast to kivas, which are more private and hidden. Updated by K. Kris Hirst Selected Sources Crown, Patricia L., and W. H. Wills. Modifying Pottery and Kivas at Chaco: Pentimento, Restoration, or Renewal? American Antiquity 68.3 (2003): 511Ã¢â¬â32. Print.Gilman, Patricia, Marc Thompson, and Kristina Wyckoff. Ritual Change and the Distant: Mesoamerican Iconography, Scarlet Macaws, and Great Kivas in the Mimbres Region of Southwestern New Mexico. American Antiquity 79.1 (2014): 90Ã¢â¬â107. Print.Mills, Barbara J. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s New in Chaco Research? Antiquity 92.364 (2018): 855Ã¢â¬â69. Print.Mobley-Tanaka, Jeannette L. Gender and Ritual Space During the Pithouse to Pueblo Transition: Subterranean Mealing Rooms in the North American Southwest. American Antiquity 62.3 (1997): 437Ã¢â¬â48. Print.Schaafsma, Polly. The Cave in the Kiva: The Kiva Niche and Painted Walls in the Rio Grande Valley. American Antiquity 74.4 (2009): 664Ã¢â¬â90. Print.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Answer some questions to some short stories - Essay Example 3. Yes, John is the villain in the story. She is against the empowerment and wellbeing of his wife. There other people falling in this category, but he emerges the epitome and fits the description of villain in the story. This is because, the narrator is his own wife and any reader would expect him to treat her in the right and humane manner contrary to what he does. 4. The color of the wallpaper is yellow. Yellow is next brightest and most visible color after white. On the paper are sub-patterns of desperate women. The patterns are clear to the narrator. The paper is a representation of medicine, family, as well as tradition which the narrator has found herself entangled in. The color shows that the oppressive practices of men are clear to the eyes of the victims, women. 5. (Q9). The roles of women in the story are facilitation and enhancement of themes such as love, death, and enabler. The author, OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, uses the existing love between Lt. Jimmy Cross and Martha to show the trend between the separation created during the war and the soldiers. The relationship between the two was not that hopped for in the first place. Cross is obsessed with Martha and this leads to the death of Ted Lavender. Similarly soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s love and patriotism for their country makes them kill opponents. Kathleen, OÃ¢â¬â¢ BrienÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter acts as the enabler for untrue stories he writes. Linda acts as a symbol that the dead can be immortalized (OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien 18). 6. (Q11) War is a representation or metaphor of human life. People like Perish because of love. The soldiers fight and some of them die because of their love for their people. There are also loneliness and isolation in the story. OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien affirms that loneliness in Vietnam is destructive forces like any other type of ammunition. 7. (Q12) If the US instituted the law today, I will definitely go and serve my country in Vietnam. There are challenges as revealed in the book by Tim challenges
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Pproperty investment - Essay Example In the past three years, as compared to the previous three years, Property Unit Trust (PUTs) which is a pooled property fund in UK had raised more than ? 7.7 billion of new investment, which is more than six times of the net investments received. In the year 2006 alone, property funds have received ? 3.6 billion into property funds. (Bottle & Key 2007). Thus, indirect investment in UK is gaining momentum and this research essay researches into various features of the same in detail. Analysis of indirect investments in real estates in UK Ã¢â¬Å"Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)Ã¢â¬ Sampson (2010, p 50) states that Ã¢â¬Å"Real Estate Investment Trust Ã¢â¬Å"surprisingly established very late in certain markets like UK. It took nearly five decades to introduce REITs in UK after it was introduced 1960 in US market. The fundamental concept of a REIT is spotless as investors are expected to invest in an investment vehicle and then later, fund will go for shopping and invest in various top notched prime properties. Thus, a participating interest in a portfolio of tangible assets by an investor is mirrored by a share owned in REITs. Madlem & Sykes (2000, p 284) argue that REITs are trusts or publicly traded companies that coalesce the investments of many investors for the purchase, development and administration of commercial real estate. A REIT is like a mutual fund which is meant for real estate investment only. Investors are benefited from the professionally diversified, managed portfolios and REITs shares are traded on national stock exchanges. RIETs have surfaced as a significant financial intermediary and still in the developing process in the field of domestic capital markets of UK. Due to high dividend yields in RIETs sector, investors are more attracted, which is higher than those offered by government securities. Madlem & Sykes (2000, p 284) are of the opinion that REITs are always a preferred investment destination to investors as it offers higher yield s and also since real estateÃ¢â¬â¢s have customarily been a good performer even during inflationary phases. Real estate companies, which see this as a passionate source of low-cost capital that could be made in the capital markets and later could reap huge capital appreciation due to increase in prices of properties. Thus, this has resulted in rapid growth on the part of real estate companies, and investors enjoyed a record-breaking growth rate in the REITs. Block (2006, p 8) stresses that REITs have offered individual investors all over UK with a mean to purchase shopping malls, skyscrapers, apartment buildings, hotel and any variety of commercial real estate one can imagine of. REITs offer the predictable and steady cash flow from the leases of real estates, but with advantages of liquidity of a common stock. As part of their ongoing real estate business, REITs usually offer access to capital, which can be employed to purchase additional properties. Madlem & Sykes (2000, p284) a rgues that an investment in real estate has been always regarded as a solid investment. However, like all other assets, it travels in cycles. Due to the global economic crisis in 2007, the commercial real estate around the globe including UK witnessed serious setbacks. As a result, new construction activities have come to stand still. This